This mode of operation is based on the exposure of electron-sensitive materials to low-energy electrons emitted from an ultra-sharp tip in close proximity to a resist-covered specimen. FE-SPL method has substantial gains over traditional e-beam lithography including: (a) closed-loop operation, (b) improved lateral resolution, (c) lower implementation cost, (d) ambient or vacuum operation, (e) delivery of exposure electrons without optics requiring optimization, (f) high overlay and stitching accuracy, and (g) the ability to “write and read” with the same probe in a non-destructive manner.

Our FE-SPL is predestined for fabrication of Single Electron Tansistors (SETs), which make possible the control of quantum transport through a zero-dimensional island, source and drain, and gate electrodes. Based on a ”top down” FE-SPL approach for the realization of control gates and readout, such SET structures become a realistic goal.