Single Ion Implanter

Stencil AFM-probe for controlled dopant placement

Enabling atomistic and quantum electronics

The future development of beyond CMOS electronic devices is scheduled to be based on single- or few dopant-QDs. The capability to precisely position every single dopant atom is a fundamental step to enable the path to the future atomistic and quantum electronics. The development of an accessible quantum computer has emerged as a premiere challenge for the development of completely novel approaches in nanofabrication and nanotechnology in the last decade. Spins of electrons and nuclei of dopant atoms embedded in silicon are promising quantum qubit candidates.

Scanning Probe based tool allowing deterministic dopant placement

nano analytik GmbH established a scanning-probe based system as an add-on module that can be used for deterministic dopant placement with any ion beam system, such as

  • focused ion beam systems (e.g. using liquid metal ion sources)
  • rapidly emerging high-brightness ion sources (e.g. based on magneto-optical traps or on laser cooled ions)
  • more conventional broad beam, relatively low-brightness ion source and beam transport systems

Donors can be placed in silicon or diamond.

The SII tool is based on our compact AFMinSEM system that provides high speed non-contact imaging at atomic resolution under high-vacuum conditions.

In combination with our Field-Emission Scanning Probe Lithography (FE-SPL) for manufacturing of control gates and readout, the nano analytik tool paves the way towards the fabrication of qubit arrays.

In summary, a versatile high-vacuum AFM system has been developed that can image at high speeds with atomic resolution without the need of external components. Here, the AFM-positioning accuracy and dynamic sub-5nm stencil functions can be combined with deterministic active substrate type single ion impact detection schemes and the ability to detect single ion impact and also, enables dopant implantation with impact detection integrated into the substrate  This technique has been already implemented by several groups in Germany, USA and Australia [1].

  • J. Meijer et al., Appl. Phys. A 91, 567–571, 2008;
  • M. Ilg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(6), Nov/Dec 2012;
  • A. Morello et al., Scalable quantum computing with ion-implanted dopant atoms in silicon, IEDM18-132, 978-1-7281-1987-8/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE;
  • Patent US2005077486 – 2005 Device and method of positional accurate implantation of individual part impurities in a substrate surface e.g. for quantum computer, has aperture at tip of end portion of cantilever beam, Th. Schenkel, I.W. Rangelow, J. Meijer.



System DataParametersOptional
Vacuum 1e-8 mbar5e-10mbar after bake-out to 125°C
Probe: Active cantilever probe80pm z-resolution 
Sample Scanner (X, Y, Z)60µm x 60µm x 20µm, equipped with capacitive position sensors. 30µm x 30µm x 10µm
Sample Scanner Resolution (Position Noise)0.45nm|0.45nm|0.2nm0.65nm|0.65nm|0.2nm
Coarse Probe-Positioner18mm x 18mm x10mm [LxWxH]12mm x 12mm x 10mm [LxWxH]
Step And Repeat Doping Field15mm x 15mm 10mm x 10mm
Imaging ModesNon-contact (Topography, Phase Shift, Error Signal), Contact-Mode, Conductive AFM (C-AFM) & Force-Distance Curve.Other modes (Kelvin-Probe, MFM, Lithography, SSPR etc.) upon request.
System Dimensions100mm x 70mm x 50mm [LxWxH]80mm x 40mm x 50mm [LxWxH]
System Foot Print1.20m x 1.40m1.20m x 1.40m



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